Download Sources of Water PPT | Power point Presentation | PDF: Present drinking water can be defined into three different classifications and they are mentioned below:

  • Surface water
  • Groundwater
  • GUDISW i.e. groundwater under direct influence of surface water

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Download Sources of Water PPT and PDF

Surface Water:

Surface water is water which is not closed to atmosphere and outcomes from overland flow. It is also explained as an outcome of surface runoff. Few examples of surface water are mentioned below:

  • Streams
  • Rivers
  • Lakes
  • Impoundments which are made by man
  • Springs
  • Shallow wells which are affected by precipitation
  • Wells which are drilled beside a river or in a river
  • Wells which are drilled beside a stream or in a stream
  • Tundra ponds
  • Muskeg
  • Rain catchments

Advantages of Surface Water:

Advantages of surface water are mentioned below:

  • It has an easy location.
  • It does not take any highly developed machinery to find the sources of surface water.
  • In many parts of United States, information is available on quality and quantity of present supplies of surface water.
  • Surface water is softer when compared with the groundwater and this feature of surface water makes treatment of water to be simpler.

Disadvantages of Surface Water:

Disadvantages of surface water are mentioned below:

  • Surface water can be easily contaminated.
  • Turbidity fluctuates with a level of precipitation.
  • Surface water’s temperature also fluctuates with a level of ambient temperature.
  • Surface water sources may freeze in winters.
  • Legal rights are required to remove surface water from lakes, streams etc.

Storage of Raw Water:

The areas of raw water storage are made to meet demands of water when the flow of water is at a low level. Types of raw water storage are explained in below diagram:

Fig1: Types of Storage of Raw Water

  1. Natural storage: Natural storage refers to big rivers and lakes like Haines, Yukon.
  2. Man-made storage: In areas where there is no natural storage, man-made storages are built and they are as follows:
  • Masonry dams
  • Embankment dams

Three different types of masonry dams are:

  • Arched dams
  • Gravity dams
  • Buttress dams


Water which is below the earth’s crust and not more than 2500 feet below earth crust are called as groundwater. Water below the earth crust and above 2500 feet of earth crust is considered as fresh water. Few examples of groundwater are mentioned below:

  • Springs which are not influenced local hydrological event and surface water
  • Wells

Groundwater Under Influence: If a spring or well is influenced by a local hydrological event or adjacent surface water and such supply of water is called as groundwater under the influence of surface water i.e. GUDISW.

Advantages of groundwater: Advantages of groundwater are mentioned below:

  • Groundwater doesn’t get easily polluted like surface water.
  • Quality of groundwater will be stable throughout the year.
  • Sources of groundwater have a low content of bacteria in it.
  • The United States and Alaska have many locations of groundwater.

Disadvantages of Groundwater: Disadvantages of groundwater are mentioned below:

  • If once, a source of groundwater gets polluted then it is very complex to recover it and there is no such easy or simple way to remove pollutants or get rid of pollutants.
  • Groundwater has a high quantity of minerals when compared with surface water and along with a high quantity of minerals; it also has enhanced a level of hardness.
  • It has high operational cost because if we even need to remove ground water then we need a pump for it.
  • It is more susceptible to long term contaminations.
  • It increases treatment cost because it has a high level of iron and manganese.
  • It may have hidden sources of pollutant.

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Hydrology of Groundwater: Groundwater is also a part of hydrological cycle like the surface water. We can find groundwater in saturated layers beneath the surface of the earth and these are called as aquifers. Three distinct names are given to aquifers depending on their type. They are:

  • Unconfined aquifers
  • Confined aquifers
  • Springs

Content of the PPT and PDF for Sources of Water

  • Introduction
  • Sources of Fresh water
  • Uses Of Water
  • Distribution of water on Earth
  • How do people use Water Resources?
  • Reference

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