Radioactive Pollution PPT | PDF | Presentation
Radioactive Pollution PPT | PDF | Presentation: Energy traveling through space is called as radiation. Energy can be transported in a stream of energetic particles or in the form of radiations i.e. electromagnetic waves. The energetic particles can be neutral or they can be electrically charged.
Also See: Thermal Pollution PPT and PDF
Radioactive Pollution PPT | PDF
Radiations are classified into two types, they are:
- Non-ionizing radiations
- Ionizing radiations
- Non-ionizing radiations: Electromagnetic waves of a longer wavelength which are near ultraviolet rays to radio waves are known as non-ionizing radiations. These radiations have enough amount of energy to excite molecules and atoms of the medium via which they travel. They make atoms to vibrate faster and but does not have enough amount of energy to ionize them.
- Ionizing radiations: These radiations are electromagnetic radiations that have high energy like gamma rays, x-rays, and short wavelength ultraviolet radiations. These rays of energy like alpha, beta, and gamma are generated in radioactive decay have the ability to ionize molecules and atoms via which they travel. They also have ability to change molecules and atoms into charged ions. Radioactive decay is a process from which alpha, beta, and gamma radiations are generated.
Radioactive pollution and sources of radioactive pollution:
Living organisms are exposed to distinct types of radiations without a break and these radiations are known as background radiations. Harmful effects can be caused by living organisms if radioactive radiations enhance above a particular limit. These harmful and hazardous radiations which are released by radioactive elements are known as radioactive pollution. Below diagram explains about sources of radioactive pollution.
Fig1: Sources Radioactive Pollution
- Natural sources of radiation: Natural sources of radiation are mentioned below:
- In natural sources of radioactive pollution, atomic radioactive minerals are one among them.
- Cosmic rays possess high energy ionizing electromagnetic radiation.
- Another source of radioactive radiation is naturally occurring radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are found in soil in small quantity.
- Radioactive elements like radium, thorium, uranium, isotopes of potassium and carbon occur in lithosphere
- Anthropogenic sources of radiation: Human activities mentioned below include in sources of radioactive pollution:
- Nuclear tests
- Nuclear reactors
- Diagnostic medical applications
- Nuclear Wastes
- Nuclear explosions
- Nuclear metal processing
Effects of ionizing radiation:
If a human body is exposed to any type of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays then it can lethal and harmful. Biological effects of radiation on human type are of two types and those are:
- Non-genetic or body damage
- Genetic damage: Chromosomes and genes get altered in genetic damage. In this damage, effects can be seen in offsprings as deformations. Breaks in genetic material i.e. DNA, a molecule having genetic data is known as mutation.
- Non-genetic damage: In non-genetic damage, the effect gets visible immediately in form of burns, birth defects, and a type of leukemia, tumors, miscarriages, fertility difficulties, and cancer of one or more organs.
Type of radiation
|Effect on body|
|Alpha particles||An alpha particle cannot enter the skin but if their sources are present inside the body then they can damage lungs and bones.|
|Beta particles||Beta particles can go inside the skin but cannot damage tissues. They have the ability to damage to eyes and skin.|
|X-rays||X-rays have ability to pass through tissues and travel far. They cannot travel through bones. They can damage cells.|
|Gamma radiation||They have an ability to easily enter the body and pass through it. Cell structure can get damage because of them.|
Table1: effects of radioactive radiation on living organisms
Effects of radiation and doses of radiation:
Biological damage which happens because of radiation depends on below-mentioned factors:
- Whether radiation is arising from outside the human or from inside human body
- Type of penetration power i.e. ionizing radiation
- Intensity of radiation
- Time of exposure
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Below mentioned points are preventive measures which help in decreasing effects due to natural radiations and artificial radiations:
- Atomic explosions in atmosphere have to be avoided.
- Closed cycle coolant systems have to be employed in nuclear reactors.
- Radioactive waste has to dispose of in a way that they cause least harm to the living organisms.
- Production of radioisotopes and use of radioisotopes has to be decreased.
- Safety measures have to take in areas where there is radon leakage.
- Working areas of radioactive emissions have to be constructed with good ventilation system and high chimneys.
- Reactions of fission have to be decreased.
Content of the PPT and PDF for Radioactive Pollution
- What is Radioactive Pollution?
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