Ultrasound PPT and PDF For Free Download: Ultrasound is a term which is used to explain sound of frequencies above 20,000 Hertz (Hz). 20,000 is a range that is beyond the human hearing’s range. Frequencies which are between 1 – 30 MHz are like typical for diagnostic ultrasound. Distinct ranges of frequency are availed for examination of distinct parts of body and they are mentioned below:

  • 3 – 5 MHz for the abdominal areas
  • 5 – 10 MHz for small parts and superficial parts
  • 10 – 30 MHz for eyes and skin

Also See: Non Technical Topics with PPT and PDF

Ultrasound PPT and PDF For Free Download

Generation of ultrasound:

Piezoelectric crystals or piezoelectric materials are capable to convert mechanical pressure into electrical voltage on their surface. When voltage is applied to opposite sides of a piezoelectric crystal then it causes a modification in its thickness. If applied electric voltage is changing, it produces oscillations that are transmitted as ultrasound waves into a medium which is surrounding. So, from this, we can say that piezoelectric crystals play the role of transducers that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Now, coming to ultrasound transducers, they are made up of thin discs. These discs are made up of artificial ceramic material like lead zirconate titanate. Usually, they have the thickness of 0.1 – 1mm which determines ultrasound frequency.

Properties of ultrasound:

  • Ultrasound propagates as longitudinal waves in fluids and in gas. In this medium, particles vibrate in a to and fro motion in a direction of propagation.
  • The velocity of sound depends on compressibility of medium and density of medium.
  • Resolution of images gets affected by wavelength of ultrasound.
  • Images of ultrasound have the feature of acoustic shadow.
  • A medium has acoustic properties and acoustic impedance is a term in which they are quantified. There will be a tiny difference between acoustic impedance of organs and distinct biological tissues.

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A shape of ultrasound beam: Ultrasound field which is a three dimensional can be explained as a beam shape from a focused transducer.

Spatial resolution: Spatial resolution is explained as least distance between two objects which are still distinguishable. Lateral resolution and axial resolution have to be differentiated in images of ultrasound.

  1. Lateral resolution: It depends on diameter of ultrasound beam.
  2. Axial resolution: It depends on length of pulse and enhances as the length of pulse decreases.

Techniques of ultrasound:

There are various techniques which are used in ultrasound and are mentioned below:

  • A-mode
  • B-mode
  • M-mode or TM-mode
  • B-scan, two dimensional
  • Three-dimensional and four-dimensional techniques
  • B-flow

Doppler techniques:

Doppler techniques are very important in examining the flow of blood. The Doppler techniques are mentioned below:

  • Continuous wave Doppler
  • Pulsed wave Doppler
  • Spectral Doppler

Applications of ultrasound:

Few applications of ultrasound are mentioned below and it is used for examining the following things:

  • Extremities like connective tissues, muscles, joints, and vessels
  • Neck: vessels, abscesses, thyroid gland, and lymph nodes
  • Chest: heart (echocardiography), wall, pleura, mediastinal tumors, and disorders of lungs which are situated in peripheral area of lungs
  • Abdomen, small pelvis, and retroperitoneum: fluid-containing structures, parenchymatous organs, gastrointestinal tract, great vessels, lymph nodes, abnormal fluid collections, and tumors
  • Spine in infants
  • Hips in infants
  • Brain in infants
  • Eyes
  • Unborn child fetus in pregnant women

General indications of B-scan technique and duplex technique:

General indications done by these are mentioned below:

  • Presence of organs
  • Position of organs
  • Shape and size of organs
  • Diagnosis of tumor
  • Differentiation of focal lesions
  • Dysfunction, stasis, and concretions of structures and hollow organs
  • Inflammatory diseases
  • Metabolic diseases which cause macroscopic alterations of organs
  • Evaluating transplants
  • Abnormal fluid collection in organs of body
  • Diagnosis of malformations
  • Diagnosis of congenital defects

Required Preparation:

An ultrasound examination does not need any preparation but for few examinations of abdomen, certain preparations are needed. Those preparations include fasting for certain period as it is useful and required.

Equipment and explanation of Ultrasound Procedure:

  • Present ultrasound equipment has all-round scanners and also have two transducers.
  • In few ultrasound procedures, a transducer is attached to probe and that probe is inserted into body through natural opening. Such procedures are mentioned below:
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Transrectal ultrasound
  • Transvaginal ultrasound

Interpretation of an Ultrasound Image:

Organs, structure within organs, tumors, fluid collections, and vessels are evaluated by B-scan technique in terms of the following:

  • Position
  • Presence
  • Outer border
  • Mobility
  • Attenuation
  • Echo pattern
  • Consistency

Benefits of Ultrasound:

  • Mostly, ultrasound scanning doesn’t need any needles or injections
  • These examinations are not painful
  • It is affordable and easy to use
  • It gives clear images of soft tissues
  • It furnishes real-time imaging

Risks of Ultrasound:

  • There are few known harmful effects of ultrasound examination

Content of the Seminar and PDF for Ultrasound

  • What is Ultrasound imaging?
  • Why Ultrasound?
  • Common Uses
  • History
  • Properties of Ultrasound
  • Equipment
  • How does the procedure work?
  • Benefits and Risks
  • References

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Ultrasound PPT and PDF For Free DownloadSumit ThakurUncategorizedUltrasound PPT and PDF For Free Download: Ultrasound is a term which is used to explain sound of frequencies above 20,000 Hertz (Hz). 20,000 is a range that is beyond the human hearing’s range. Frequencies which are between 1 – 30 MHz are like typical for diagnostic ultrasound. Distinct...Seminar Topics