Genetic Engineering Ppt Seminar with pdf report
Genetic Engineering Seminar and PPT with pdf report: Every one of us knows that many of our distinguishing qualities are genetic and we get these qualities from our parents. Genetic engineering is all about the applied science or technology with which we can change the genetic information of plants, animals, and human beings to generate the qualities which we want. Genetic engineering is working on two outlooks for the future, they are:
- Transgenic engineering
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Genetic Engineering Seminar and PPT with PDF Report
Transgenic engineering is nothing but placing the information from one plant or animal into other.
Cloning is the making of genetic copies of an existing animal or plant.
History of genetic engineering:
With this, the human beings have a lot more to know about them at the molecular level. The genetic modification is in practice from 12,000 BC when the human beings began to accustom organisms to household life. Genetic engineering is the direct transfer of DNA from one organism to the other and this was initially started by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in the year of 1972. The mouse was the foremost animal which was genetically modified by Rudolf Jaenisch, tobacco was the foremost plant which was modified by availing genetic engineering.
In 1976 and 1978 genetically changing bacteria namely somatostatin and insulin were generated. Coming to the foods, a tomato was the foremost food that was produced in 1994 availing genetic engineering. The dog was believed to be the foremost animal that was accustomed to household life and raised from the wolf family. Charles Darwin explained three types of selective breeding and they are as follows:
- Methodical Selection is a type of selective breeding where the human beings select the particular characteristics for breeding.
- Unconscious selection is a type of selective breeding where the qualities are selected as those are desirable qualities.
- Natural selection is another type of selective breeding where the organisms are helped to survive better.
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Later many developments were made by the scientists and they enhanced many varieties.
Techniques of genetic engineering:
The techniques used in the genetic engineering are as follows:
- Recombinant DNA
- Electro and chemical insertion
- Bio ballistics method
Recombinant DNA: Few steps are involved in this recombinant DNA technique and they are as follows:
- The genes of our interest are separated from the molecule of DNA by availing restriction enzymes.
- After separation of the gene, it is taken into a vector which is a virus and it undergoes the procedure of cloning.
- After cloning, the gene is taken into a plasmid which is a type of bacteria.
- At last, the gen with the plasmid is known as recombinant DNA.
Electrochemical insertion: In the electrochemical insertion method, pores are created in the membrane of the cell and through these pores, genes are transferred without any difficulty. To make the pores on the cell surface, few unique chemicals are used or in few conditions, the surface is exposed to a weak electric current which creates the pores. Thus, in this way the genes are transferred or inserted.
Bio ballistics method: In this method, tiny silver particles are used to insert the genes into the cell and these silver particles are coated with the genetic material. In some cases, the silver particles are inserted with the help of a shotgun.
Microinjection: Plasmids and vectors are not the only to insert genes into the cells; there are many ways of transferring genes where the plasmids and vectors are not utilized and one of such method is microinjection. In the microinjection method, the abroad gene is injected into a cell which later incorporates with the cell and replicates. If a large area is concerned then a glass needle is helped to inject.
Prospects of genetic engineering:
- Genetic engineering is a perfect solution for substituting present land scarcity for the agriculture purposes and destroying starvation. By knowing that we have a solution for such issue or problem no one should destroy the nature and should even decrease such activities to maintain the ecosystem.
- Provides a great opportunity to inject the genes of glowing jellyfish to butterflies to generate a glowing butterfly.
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Advantages of genetic engineering:
- The genetic engineering contributes to the research of biotechnology because the transplantation of genes produces unlimited possibilities.
- The genetic engineering enhances the possibilities of destroying hunger because many food items can be genetically changed like the production of sweeter tomatoes and bigger cherries.
- The bad genes inherited from parents are detected and removed then helps in removing diseases as a part of the lives of human beings.
- Genetic engineering also has the capable enhancing people’s life.
Disadvantages of genetic engineering:
- The genetic engineering can sometimes have irreversible effects.
- Enhances food supply but at the same time, it will have adverse effects too.
- Implementing the methods of genetic engineering is risky.
Yes, it is true that it has side effects but still, there are many possible ways to create new ways in genetic engineering like creation new human being with many beneficial characteristics. The genetic engineering is quicker and we can also predict the results of it to few extent.
Content of the Seminar and pdf report for Genetic Engineering
- What is Genetic Engineering
- Techniques of Genetic Engineering
- Prospects for Genetic Engineering
- Dangers of Genetic Engineering
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