RNA PPT | PDF Report Free Download
RNA PPT | PDF Report Free Download: RNA is different from DNA in respect of structure and function. Two big structural differences in RNA are mentioned below:
- In RNA each ribose ring has 2-hydroxyl
- RNA avails uracil in the place where thymine is used
Molecules in RNA has the capacity of base pairing but they don’t form large regions of stable RAN i.e. RNA double helix. RNA also acts as a genetic material. RNA is capable of forming complex structures like complex three-dimensional structures which the DNA can’t form. As an output, RNA also shows catalytic activity. Ability of RNA to store genetic data and to catalyze reactions has resulted in RNA World. RNA World is a proposal for origin of life.
RNA PPT | PDF Report Free Download
RNA world hypothesis proposed that if once RNA molecules are filled with roles of nucleic acid macromolecules and proteins, then these RNA molecules act as a source of enzymatic activity and also as a data storage capacity for metabolic reactions. In general, we can say that RNA is not as suitable as DNA in acting as a genetic material. Along with that, it is not as suitable as proteins in forming efficient catalysts. In a major level, the functions of RNA are concerned with synthesis of proteins.
Types of RNA:
Major types of RNA are explained in a diagrammatic representation and it is as below:
Fig1: Types of RNA
- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): Ribosomal RNA molecules have 65% to 70% of mass of ribosome. Ribosome is machinery which is responsible for synthesis of proteins. Ribosomes are huge objects and eukaryotic ribosomes have molecular weights of about four million and prokaryotic ribosomes have molecular weights of about 2.5 million.
- Eukaryotic 40S ribosome have 1rRNA (18 S rRNA = 1900 bases) and also have thirty-five distinct proteins
- A 60 S ribosome have 3 rRNA (5 S = 120 bases, 5.8 S = 160 bases, 28 S = 4700 bases) and also contains 50 proteins
- A 5 S rRNA contains its own gene
Previously it was assumed that ribosomal RNA do huge structural function but the modern and new information very strongly suggests that rRNA acts as enzyme with protein which plays the role of structural scaffolding. This information has the results from the low-resolution structure of complete ribosome and high-resolution x-ray diffraction structure of large subunit from bacterium haloarcula marismortui.
- Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNA is an approximately 75 base molecule which carries amino acids and transfers them to the proteins which are growing. tRNAs have a common tertiary structure.
- Messenger RNA (mRNA):mRNA molecules have a coding sequence for proteins. Molecules of message RNA changes in size with eukaryotic transcripts including largest and known ribonucleic acids.
RNA bases: Bases which are used for RNA are attached to ribose. Modified bases include methylated versions of cytosine, adenine, and pseudouracil.
Transcription: A process of synthesizing RNA by availing a DNA template is known as transcription.
Terminology related to RNA: The terminology related to RNA is mentioned below:
- Coding strand
- Template strand
- Consensus sequence
- TATA box
- Gene: Gene is a stretch from DNA which has both a template for RNA synthesis and a sequence which permits the control of production of RNA from region of template. When the techniques for the synthesis of proteins truly worked out then it was suggested that each gene corresponds to a single protein. Clearly, this cannot be true because few genes like ribosomal RNA genes do not code for proteins.
- Complementary: Having a sequence of base which permits base pairing to another sequence.
- Coding strand: Coding strand is a sequence of DNA which corresponds to a sequence of RNA of the transcript. Coding strand has the similar sequence like RNA.
- Template strand: Template strand is a complementary to both DNA coding strand and RNA strand.
- Upstream: On the coding strand it will be on 5th side of any given position.
- Downstream: On the coding strand it will be on 3rd side of any given position.
- Consensus sequence: Sequences of DNA which have regulatory functions normally have same sequences.
- Promoter: Promoter is a sequence of DNA which is recognized by a transcription initiation complex.
- TATA box: It is a part of promoter region.
Content of the Seminar and PDF for Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
- Different Types
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