Nanomaterials PPT and PDF Report Free Download: In the past years, nanoscience is emerging as one of the vital and exciting areas of interest in all the areas of science and applied science. The meaning of the word nano is 10^-9 and one nanometer is equal to a billionth of a meter. If an object’s material size is decreased to nanoscale then the material of object exhibits distinct properties when compared with the properties of the material in bulk form.

Nanomaterials PPT and PDF Report Free

Definition: The nanochemistry is explained as the study of the synthesis of materials and properties of materials in the range of nanoscale.

  • Therefore, 1nm = 10^-7 cm OR 1nm = 10^-9 m

Classification of nanomaterials:

The types of nanomaterials are explained in the below figure:

Fig1: types of nanomaterials

  1. One dimensional nanomaterial: This type of material has one dimension arrangement of atoms in the nanoscale range. The examples for one dimension nanomaterial are surface coatings and thin films.
  2. Two-dimensional nanomaterial: This type of material has two dimension arrangements of atoms in the nanoscale range. The examples for two dimension nanomaterial are biopolymers, nanotubes, and nanowires.
  3. Three-dimensional nanomaterial: This type of material has three dimension arrangements of atoms in the nanoscale range. The examples for three dimension nanomaterial are fullerenes.

The significance of nanoscale:

It is observed that the properties are distinct on the nanoscale from those at the larger scale. The properties like quantum, mechanical and thermodynamical become vital at the nano level and these are not seen at the macroscopic level. The nanoscience is based on the fact that along with the physical dimensions of the materials the properties of the materials also change. The transformation in the properties of the materials in these confined spaces is because of the changes in the electronic structure of the materials.  The properties of the materials are distinct at the nano level due to the following two reasons:

  • Increased surface area
  • Quantum confinement effect

Properties of nanomaterials:

The properties of the nanomaterials depend on the crystal structure and size and few properties of the nanomaterials are explained below:

  • Physical properties
  • Mechanical properties
  • Magnetic properties
  • Optical properties
  • Thermal properties
  • Surface area
  • Catalytic activity
  • Electrical properties
  • Semiconductors
  • Superconductors
  1. Physical properties: In the nanoscale range, surface area to volume enhances. This enhancement transforms the surface pressure and results in a change in the interatomic spacing. This feature is explained in the below figure:

Fig2: graph showing the nearest neighbor distance in copper metal as a function of cluster size

In the above graph, the X-axis represents the diameter in nm and the Y-axis represents the interatomic spacing.

The changes happened in interatomic spacing and large volume to surface ratio has a combined effect on the properties of the material. The chemical potential changes due to variation in the surface free energy. As an outcome, the melting point exhibits variation for a change in particular size for gold particles and it is explained in the below graph:

Fig3: melting point of gold particles as a function size

In the above graph, the X-axis represents the diameter in the nm and Y-axis represents the melting point in Kelvin.

  1. Mechanical properties: The nanomaterials have the application on both the low temperatures and high temperatures. So, the mechanical properties of the nanomaterials are studied at low temperatures and also at the high temperatures.
  2. Magnetic properties: The magnetic behavior of the nanomaterials is size dependent. In the tiny ferromagnetic particles, the magnetic properties are distinct from that of the very large material. In the range of nanoscale, magnetic material has a single magnetic domain. As an outcome, the remanent magnetization and coercive field exhibit a strong dependence on the size of a particle.
  3. Optical properties: If the particles of a semiconductor are made tiny then the effects of quantum come into play which limits the energies at which the electrons and holes can exist in the particles.
  4. Thermal properties: The nanocrystalline materials are expected to have a low conductivity of thermal when compared with the conventional materials.
  5. Surface area: Nanomaterials have large surface area and the nanocrystal’s surface area is inversely proportional to the crystal’s size.
  6. Catalytic activity: Nanomaterials can be availed as effective catalysts in many reactions.
  7. Electrical properties: Nanomaterials exhibit electrical properties in between semiconductors and metals depending on the chirality of the molecules and diameter of the molecules.
  8. Semiconductors: Most of the nanomaterials play the role of a semiconductor and these nanowires which have the feature of being a semiconductor are used in making distinct components.
  9. Superconductors: Few nanomaterials behave as the superconductors.

Applications of nanomaterials:

The nanomaterials have its applications in distinct fields and few of them are as follows:

  • Material technology
  • Information technology
  • Biomedicals
  • Energy storage
  • The carbon nanotubes and nanowires are utilized in making many components.

Synthesis of nanomaterials:

The processes used for the synthesis of nanomaterials are explained in the below figure:

Fig4: general process for the synthesis of nanomaterials

Few methods of a top-down process are explained below:

  • Ball milling
  • Plasma arching
  • Laser sputtering
  • Vapour destination

Few methods of a bottom-up process are explained below:

  • Sol-gel
  • Colloidal
  • Electrodeposition
  • Solution phase reductions

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