LIPIDS PPT | PDF | Presentation: Lipids are a distinct group of compounds, including oils, waxes, steroids, fats and similar compounds that are very much connected by their physical property rather than their chemical property. Lipids are a group of compounds which are differentiated by their feature of solubility in nonpolar solvents and insolubility in water. They play a vital role in biological systems as they form a cell membrane and a cell membrane is a mechanical obstruction which separates a cell from the external environment.

LIPIDS PPT | PDF | Presentation

Lipids furnish energy for life and there are many lipids which are important to life, including fatty acids, steroids, triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids. Fatty acids are vital constituents of all these lipids and there are two important varieties of fatty acids and they are as follows:

  • Saturated fatty acids and
  • Unsaturated fatty acids

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Biological roles of Lipids:

Similar to ether and chloroform, lipids have a usual property of being soluble in nonpolar solvents and insoluble in water. They are considered as a vital constituent of dietary not only because of more energy value but also due to the fatty acids present in the fat of natural food. The vital cellular constituents are lipoproteins which are combinations of proteins and lipids. Vital biomedical fields like diabetes mellitus, obesity and atherosclerosis can be understood with the knowledge of lipids.

Classification of Lipids:

The lipids are classified as two types and they are as below:

  • Simple lipids
  • Complex lipids
  • Precursor and derived lipids

Simple lipids: The simple lipids are the esters of fatty acids with several alcohols.

  •     Fats: they are the esters of fatty acids with glycerol and oils are a type of fat which are in the state of liquid.
  •     Waxes: these are also the esters of fatty acids with more molecular weight.

Complex lipids: the complex lipids are the esters of fatty acids which have groups in addition to a fatty acid and an alcohol.

  • Phospholipids: these are the lipids which have fatty acid, phosphoric acid residue, and an alcohol.
  • Glycolipids: the glycolipids are also called as glycosphingolipids and they have a fatty acid, carbohydrate, and sphingosine.
  • Other complex lipids: the lipids like lipoproteins, sulfolipids, and amino lipids can be placed in this type of lipids.

Precursor and derived lipids: this type of lipids contains fatty acids, steroids, glycerol, fatty aldehydes, ketone bodies, other alcohols, hydrocarbons, hormones, and lipid soluble vitamins.

The below diagram explains about the classification of lipids:

classification of lipids

Fig3: Classification of Lipids

Digestion and Absorption of Lipids:

The important lipids in the food are triacylglycerols and after triacylglycerols, phospholipids take the next place, fat soluble vitamins absorption is deteriorated on a diet of very low fat. Free fatty acids are very quickly removed and oxidized from blood to become triacylglycerols in tissues. In the mucosal cells, the total long-chain fatty acids are absorbed and are converted to triacylglycerols. The triacylglycerol with other products enters the blood stream through thoracic duct. Triacylglycerols are conveyed from the liver in very low-density lipoproteins and from intestines in chylomicrons.

Lipoprotein Sources and Components:             

The below table explains about the lipoprotein sources and its components along with apolipoproteins.

Lipoprotein

Source

Vital lipid components

Apolipoproteins

HDL Liver, intestine, VLDL, chylomicrons Phospholipids, cholesterol  C-II, C-III, D, E, A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I
LDL VLDL Cholesterol B-100
IDL VLDL Triacylglycerol, cholesterol B-100, E
Chylomicrons Intestine Triacylglycerol A-I, A-II, A-IV, B 48, C-I, C-II, C-III, E
Chylomicron remnants Chylomicrons Triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesterol B-48, E
VLDL Liver Triacylglycerol B-100, C-I, C-II, C-III

Fig4: Table of Lipoprotein Sources and Components and Apolipoproteins

Content of the PPT and PDF for Lipids

  • žIntroduction
  • žDefinition
  • žImportance of Lipids
  • žFunctions 
  • žMajor Lipids Of Physiological Significance
  • žApplications
  • žAdvantages
  • žDisadvantages
  • žReferences

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