Ecosystem PPT | PowerPoint Presentation | PDF Download: No living organism lives alone, they associate with each other and have the functional relationship with external factors. It is understood that the structural and functional systems of communities and their environment is called an Ecology and Ecosystem. Ecology is a branch of science that deals with the study of a biosphere. In the biosphere distinct kinds of plants, animals, microorganisms, and other components surround us. The term ecosystem was initially proposed by Arthur George Tansley in 1935.

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Ecosystem PPT | PowerPoint Presentation | PDF

An ecosystem is composed of two types of components namely:

  • Biotic components
  • Abiotic components

1. Biotic components: The biotic components are the organic compounds and also known as living component of an ecosystem. There are subdivided into the following groups:

  • Producers
  • Consumers
  • Decomposers

Producers: These are food suppliers to all plants and green trees which are termed as producers. For example, all green plants and trees take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water from the soil, and sunlight from the sun. The plants undergo a chemical reaction and it is also known as photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants liberate oxygen into an environment which is essential for life. The below equation explains about the photosynthesis reaction and liberation of oxygen.


Consumers: Consumers are classified into four groups and they are:

  • Primary consumers
  • Secondary consumers
  • Tertiary consumers
  • Omnivores
  1. Primary consumers: They depend only on plants for their food and they are called as herbivores. The examples of it are insects, flies, deer, and rabbit.
  2. Secondary consumers: These are the animals which depend on herbivores for their food. The examples of it are frog, lizard, fish, and snake.
  3. Tertiary consumers: Wild animals like tiger, lion, and fox feed on the animals and they are called as carnivores.
  4. Omnivores: Human beings are classified as omnivores and they feed on plants and animals.


Decomposers: Decomposers feed on the dead bodies of plants and animals and convert them back as nutrients into the soil. Termites, ants and some other bacteria are called as decomposers. Animals such as frog, dog, wolf, and eagles are termed as decomposers. The decomposers not only act as scavengers to clean the dead bodies but also serves as parasites, participate to clean the ecological cycles.

2.Abiotic components: Abiotic components are the non-organic compounds and also known as non-living components of an ecosystem. The examples of these components are temperature, light, and soil.

Ecological Pyramids:

An ecological pyramid is a graphical representation of an ecological parameter like number, biomass, and energy depicted in a systematic and stepwise manner in an ecosystem. The ecological pyramid was initially developed by Charles Elton in 1927. Hence they are also called as Eltonian pyramids. Three types of pyramids may be performed per each ecosystem and they are as follows:

  • Pyramid of numbers
  • Pyramid of biomass
  • Pyramid of energy

1.Pyramid of numbers: This pyramid deals with the relationship between the number of primary producers and consumers of a different order.

Pyramid of Numbers

Fig1: Pyramid of Numbers

2.Pyramid of biomass: This explains about the biomass per unit area.

Pyramid of Biomass

Fig2: Pyramid of Biomass

3.Pyramid of energy: The pyramid of energy depends upon the energy levels. In the pyramid structure energy level increases from bottom to top. Here, producers have low energy level but the consumers have high energy level.

Pyramid of Energy

Fig3: Pyramid of Energy

Grassland ecosystem: Grassland is an area that consists of grass, sedges, and forage plants. Grassland occupies about 24% of the earth’s surface.

Grassland Ecosystem

Fig4: Grassland Ecosystem

Forest ecosystem: Natural renewal resources are many and one among them is a forest. Forest is an area where 10% or more of the land is occupied by very big plants. Te world’s biggest and tropical forest area is located in South America which is called as Amazon Forest. The loss of forest can decrease rainfall and protection of forest lead to protection of biodiversity which is the resource material of biotechnology.

Forest Ecosystem

Fig5: Forest Ecosystem

Aquatic ecosystem: The aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem which is related to water, abiotic components in the pond ecosystem are some organic and inorganic compounds discovered in it and water.

Aquatic Ecosystem

Fig6: Aquatic Ecosystem

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Energy flow in an ecosystem:

The flow of energy from one organism to another organism in an ecosystem is known as energy flow. In biological activities, energy flows from the sun to plants and to all heterotrophic organisms like animals and human beings. The flow of energy takes place in the following way:

  • Sun to plant
  • Plant to primary consumers
  • Primary consumers to secondary consumers
  • Secondary consumers to tertiary consumers
  • Tertiary consumers to quaternary consumers
  • Quaternary consumers to sun ecosystem

The energy flow diagram is as shown below:

Diagram of Energy Flow in an Ecosystem

Fig7: Diagram of Energy Flow in an Ecosystem

Content of the PPT and PDF for Ecosystem

  • —What Is An Ecosystem
  • —Types
  • — Component
  • —Functions of an ecosystem
  • —Conservation of forest
  • —The Ten Global Threats to Ecosystem Viability
  • —References

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