Download Generations of Computer PPT, PDF Report
Download Generations of Computer PPT, PDF Report: Initially, the foremost electronic computer was planned and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology to perform the logic operations as well as to store the data. Depending on the event causing a change in the technology, the computers have been divided into five types as below:
- First Generation: 1945- 1955
- Second Generation: 1955- 1965
- Third Generation: 1965- 1975
- Fourth Generation: 1975- Present
- Fifth Generation: Present and Beyond
Generations of Computer PPT, PDF Report
First Generation (1945- 1955):
Some of the first generation computers were ENIAC, EDSAC, EDVAC, and UNIVAC. Where
- ENIAC – Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator
- EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
- EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
- UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701
In all the above computers, the vacuum tube technology was used and the computational speed was in milliseconds but they were non-portable, not reliable, highly susceptible to hardware failures, very expensive, consume a huge amount of electricity, has to need to assemble every component manually. So, because of all the above reasons, the commercial production was very poor. They also had difficulty to avail as they were machine language dependent.
Second Generation (1955- 1965):
The examples of second generation computers are IBM- 1401, IBM- 7090, IBM- 7030, Digital data corporation’s PDP 1/5/8, Honey well 400.
In this generation vacuum tubes were replaced by the transistors (invented at bell laboratories). These machines were comparatively small in size when compared to the first generation machines. The computational speed was very high i.e. from milliseconds to microseconds and they use to generate fewer amounts but still air conditioning was required. They were portable, reliable and not susceptible to the failures of hardware. They required manual assembling of components to form a functional unit and were assembly language dependent as compilers were developed to change from high-level language to assembly language program.
They were low in cost, magnetic ferrite core memories were used as main memory and magnetic tapes as secondary memory. Improvement of the individual input and output memories helped to operate in parallel with the CPU. They had the wide range of application in many fields like business to the engineering analysis and design.
Third Generation (1965- 1975):
Illustration of the third generation computers was system 360 mainframe from IBM, PDP-8, Mini computers from digital equipment corporation, NCR 395 and B6500.
The computers of the third generation were based on the integrated circuit technology, the central processing unit; input/output processors were equipped by small scale integration and medium scale integration. They were smaller in size, generates less amount of heat, computational speed was very fast (i.e. from microseconds to nanoseconds), low maintenance cost as not prone to hardware failure. In the commencing magnetic core memories were in avail but later semiconductor memories (RAM & ROM) were used in their place.
Only during this generation microprogramming, parallel processing, database management, multi-user application, automatic industrial control and much more were introduced.
Fourth Generation (1975- Present):
During this generation the microprocessors were introduced, the microprocessor is a stamp size chip which has a complete circuit of a computer processor using VLSI. Few integrated circuits with the entire circuitry are Intel’s (8088, 80286, 80386, 80486), Motorola’s (68000, 68030, 68040), Apple II, CRAY I/2/X/MP, Altair 8800 and CRAV-1.
In this semiconductor chips played the role of main memory whereas hard disks are used as secondary memory and floppy disks are used backup memory. They were small in size, have high speed, cheaper in cost, portable, and reliable. These machines don’t generate much heat, have low maintenance cost and low production cost. C language, Graphical user interface, Unix OS were also introduced.
Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond):
The characteristics found in fifth generation computers are
- Artificial Intelligence
- Parallel Processing
- Mega chips
- Multiple Pipelines and Multiple Processors
Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence refers to the sequence of inter-related technology that generally simulate and reproduce human behavior which includes thinking, speaking and listening.
Parallel Processing: In contrast to serial processing, parallel processing executed several instructions simultaneously at a single operation.
Mega Chips: these generation computers will use super large integrated chips as they require a large amount of storage for storing information as well as instructions.
Ultra Large Scale Integration technology was implemented in the Intel’s Pentium 4 microprocessor. Also, vector processors, SIMD processors, memory chips, hard disks up to 180 GB, object-oriented languages and new operating systems have been developed.
Some of the examples of the fifth generation computers are SUN workstations, Origin 2000, PARAM 10000, IBM SP/2, IBM notebooks, Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core and much more.
Hence, the generations of the computers explain in detail about the past and further development of technology. Coming technologies like quantum mechanism, nanotechnology will change the stage of computers and grid technology is the upcoming technology in the internet application.
Content of the Seminar and pdf report for Generations of Computer
- What is A Computer
- First Generation of Computer
- Features of First Generation
- Second Generation of Computer
- Features of Second Generation
- Third Generation of Computer
- Features of Third Generation
- Fourth Generation of Computer
- Features of Fifth Generation
- Fifth Generation of Computer
- Features of Fifth Generation
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