DIODE Seminar PPT and PDF Report Download: A diode is also a tool that exclusively permits unidirectional flow of current if the diode is operated at a particular voltage level. Diodes exclusively block current in the reverse direction whereas the reverse voltage is within a restricted vary and if not reverse barrier breaks and conjointly the voltage at that this breakdown happens is termed reverse breakdown voltage. The diode plays the role of a valve between the electronic and device. A contact is that the only style of the diode that behaves or work as an ideal short circuit once it’s in forward biased and behaves or work as an ideal electrical circuit once it’s among the reverse biased. Beside these easy and simple PN junction diodes, there are distinct types of diodes although the essential principles are extra or less same. So a specified arrangement of diodes can convert AC to pulsing DC, and hence, it’s generally additionally noted as a rectifier. A word diode comes from “di-ode” which means a tool having two electrodes.

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Symbol of a diode:

Symbol of a diode is shown below:

Fig1: Symbol of a Diode

Working principle of a diode:

  1. Unbiased diode: N-side will have an important variable of electrons and intensely few holes whereas the p aspect will have a more concentration of holes and intensely few electrons. Because of this, a technique remarked as diffusion takes place. Throughout this methodology, free electrons which are from n aspect will spread into the p aspect and recombine with holes present there, and leaves positive immobile ions in n aspect and creating negative immobile ions in p aspect of the diode. Hence, there will be uncovered positive donor ions in n-type aspect near the junction edge. Similarly, there will be uncovered negative acceptor ions in p-type aspect near the junction edge. As a result of this, numbers of positive ions and negative ions will accumulate on n-side and p-side severally. This region which is formed is termed as depletion region because of the “depletion” of free carriers among the region. Due to the presence of these positive ions and negative ions, a static field mentioned as barrier potential is created across the PN junction of the diode. It’s stated as “barrier potential” as a result of it plays the role of a barrier and opposes the extra movement of holes and electrons across the junction.
  2. Forward biased diode: In a very PN junction diode once the forward voltage is applied that is, a positive terminal of a source is connected to the p aspect, and conjointly the negative terminal of the availability is connected to the n-type aspect, the diode is speculated to be in forward biased condition. We have a tendency to all understand that there is a barrier potential across the junction. This barrier potential is directed among the alternative of the forward applied voltage. So a diode can exclusively modify current to flow among the forward direction once forward applied voltage is over barrier potential of the junction. This voltage is termed forward biased voltage.
  3. Reverse biased diode: Currently, if the diode is in reverse biased, which is nothing but the positive terminal of the availability is connected to the n-type finish, and conjointly the negative terminal of the availability is attached to the p-type finish of the diode. Although, there is a little current flowing from n-type finish to p-type finish among the diode as a result of minority carriers. This little current is termed reverse saturation current. Minority carriers are within the main thermally generated holes and electrons in semiconductor device and semiconductor device severally. Currently, if reverse applied voltage across the diode is often raised, then once bound applied voltage the depletion layer will destroy that is ready to cause a massive reverse current to flow through the diode. If this electricity is not externally restricted and it reaches the far aspect the safe worth, the diode might even be permanently destroyed. This could be as a result of because the reverse voltage can increase, the energy of the charge carriers i.e. minority charge carriers to boot will increase. These fast electrons bit the alternative atoms among the device to knock-off some lots of electrons from them. The electrons, therefore, discharged to boot unleash rather additional electrons from the atoms by breaking the valence bonds. This methodology is termed as carrier multiplication and finally ends up in a very substantial increase in the flow of current through the contact. The associated development is known as Avalanche Breakdown.

Different types of a diode:

There are distinct forms of diodes and those are mentioned below:

  • Light emitting diode
  • Avalanche diode
  • Laser diode
  • PIN diode
  • Photodiode
  • Schottky diode
  • Varactor diode
  • Tunnel diode
  • P-N junction diode
  • Zener diode

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