Air Pollution PPT and PDF for Free Download
Air Pollution PPT and PDF for Free Download: Air plays a vital role not only in nature but also in the lives of human beings and all living organisms; around 18,000 distinct species need air. Living organisms can survive without water for some time but cannot survive without air because when we breathe then we intake oxygen from air and releases carbon dioxide, if this procedure does not take place then it is difficult to survive. Well, now we have known the importance of air but due to activities of human beings contaminants are added to air and this is known as air pollution. Atmosphere what we have today is very much distinct when compared with atmosphere before 1760 i.e. before the industrial revolution.
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Air Pollution PPT and PDF for Free Download
If a pure and natural atmosphere is considered to be clean then in the present condition we cannot find natural atmosphere because chemical contents in atmosphere are enhanced. For example, content of carbon dioxide in natural atmosphere was 280ppm and now in current atmosphere it is 370.0^3ppm, likewise, methane was 0.750ppm and at present it is 1.77^4ppm, nitrous oxide was 0.270ppm and now it is 0.318^5ppm. To give a precise meaning of air pollution is a complex thing and can state that pollution began to include in air when human beings started burning fuels.
In other words, we can state air pollution as the man-made emissions or anthropogenic emissions into air because emissions made by man change the natural atmosphere’s chemical composition. Enhancement in global concentrations of gasses of greenhouse like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide is also known as air pollution. We can purify the above statement by considering man-made emissions of hazardous chemicals as air pollution but this consideration has an adverse effect too.
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Primary Pollutants and Secondary Pollutants:
Basically, contaminants are of two types and they are as follows:
- Primary contaminants
- Secondary contaminants
Primary contaminants: primary contaminants are substances which are directly released into air from sources. The important primary contaminants which are hazardous in high amount are as follows:
- Carbon compounds
- Sulfur compounds
- Nitrogen compounds
- Halogen compounds
- Aerosols or particulate matter are divided into following groups depending upon their diameter:
- Inhalable are particles which are less than 100 microns and these particles can comfortably enter via nose and mouth.
- Thoracic are particles which are less than 10 microns and these particles can enter deep in respiratory system.
- Respirable are particles which are less than 4 microns.
- There are particles which are less than 2.5 microns and 0.1 microns.
Secondary contaminants or pollutants: secondary contaminants or pollutants are not directly released from sources but instead of this, they are formed in atmosphere from primary contaminants and secondary pollutants are also called as precursors. The important secondary contaminants which are hazardous in high amount are as follows:
- Ozone formed from reactions of photochemical of VOCs and nitrogen oxides.
- The droplets of sulfuric acid formed from sulfur dioxide.
- The droplets of nitric acid formed from nitrogen dioxide.
- Sulfate aerosols formed from reactions of sulfuric acid droplets with ammonia.
- Nitrate aerosols formed from reactions of nitric acid droplets with ammonia.
Air Pollution Regulations:
From the last few decades, air pollution has been controlled all over the world through laws and regulations. Some of them are as follows:
- In the United States of America, Environmental Protection Agency has made few standards of air quality to secure the health of the public.
- The UN-ECE i.e. United Nations Economic Commission of Europe has made laws to decrease air pollution.
- The Clear Air Act of United States furnishes a principal framework to secure the quality of air.
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Classification of Air Pollutants and their Trends:
The categories of air pollution and their trends are as follows:
- Criteria pollutants
- Toxic pollutants
- Radioactive pollutants
- Indoor pollutants
Now, let us know about criteria pollution in detail as it has few trends to explain. Criteria contaminants regulated by United States- Environmental Protection Agency and many countries are as below:
- Particulate matter particles smaller than 10µm in diameter
- Sulfur dioxide
- Nitrogen oxides
- Carbon monoxide
The following figure explains about concentrations of criteria pollutants:
Fig1: concentrations of criteria pollutants
The below diagram explains about major sources of air pollution. The diagram is as below:
Fig2: major sources of air pollution
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Health Effects of Air Pollution:
Air pollution causes some health effects and those health effects are as follows:
- Irritation of eyes
- Irritation of throat and nose
- Tightness of chest
- Difficulty in breathing
- Heart problems and lung difficulties like asthma
- Enhanced risk of heart attacks
Along with the health effects, it also causes distinct environmental effects and those are as follows:
- Acid rain
- Effect on wildlife
- Depletion of ozone
- Damage to crop
- Damage to forest
- Change of global climate
Content of the PPT and PDF for Air Pollution
- What is it?
- How is it measured?
- The measured pollutants
- Its effects
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